Let's face it, no matter how many precautions you take in the dance studio each day, your feet are inevitably going to get trashed. Between pointe shoes, petit/grand allegro, and stretching beyond what is natural, those puppies take a genuine beating. All that impact may tempt you to ask, "Is there any hope for performers to avoid injuries at all?" As it turns out, yes! According to Dr. Bryan Hersh, DPM, of the Center for Pediatric Medicine in Chicago, IL, dancers can seriously reduce the likelihood of injury by taking care of their feet outside of the studio. Read on for his tips on how to keep your feet safe and strong.
The Washington Post just ran a rather epic story about ballerinas' intense, inherently abusive relationships with their feet. And while a lot of it is stuff that serious dancers already know—getting up on pointe requires dancers to be as strong as football players, every dancer has her own pointe shoe break-in method, etc—the piece also includes anecdotal gems from the likes of Lauren Lovette and Julie Kent. (And some pretty photos of Washington Ballet dancers Sona Kharatian and Ashley Murphy.)
Photo by Nathan Sayers.
We’ve all seen that photo: an otherwise lovely dancer, posed in first arabesque, with a glaring blemish at the end of her leg—a droopy, sickled foot. Swap that image for a photo in which the dancer’s foot gracefully swoops, or “wings,” up from the ankle, though, and bunheads will start to drool. That one small detail makes such a huge difference.
But what’s wrong with a straight, neutral foot? Technically, nothing. When New York City Ballet principal Sterling Hyltin partially tore her deltoid ligament four years ago, she temporarily lost her ability to wing. “It’s not the end of the world,” she says. “Just make sure you’re pointing as hard and as straight as you can so that your foot completes the line of your leg.”
Besides, sickling and (at times) winging can create instability. “A neutral foot is the healthiest option because you’re more properly aligned,” says Shannon Casati of Ballet Austin’s physical therapy team. Still, ballet dancers are often encouraged to enhance their line by winging. The key is knowing how and when to do so.
Improve Your Line
What is it about sickling that makes ballet dancers shudder in horror? For one thing, it’s just kind of ugly—especially in a pointe shoe. “You always want to accentuate and elongate your leg line,” says Rose Taylor, a ballet instructor at the Kansas City Ballet School. “But a sickled foot immediately breaks and shortens that line.”
Additionally, sickling can be dangerous, especially during relevés and jumps. “You can easily sprain your ankle when you roll towards the outside of your foot,” Casati says. “And once you’ve stretched out a ligament, it’s permanent.”
While some dancers can easily shape their feet correctly, others have trouble moving beyond a sickled line. The reason? “Genetics,” Casati says. “Two heel bones—the calcaneus and the talus—have to move up towards your head to point the forefoot down and create a pretty shape. Some people have a lot of play in those two bones, which allows them to point from higher up in their ankle, while others don’t.”
Luckily, basic classroom technique can help those who struggle with sickling. Tendu, which leads forward with the heel and back with the toes, is a perfect example. “Work segmentally through the foot to engage all of the muscles,” says Casati, who is also a former professional dancer. “I had a teacher who called it ‘pushing your pennies’: Imagine you have a pile of pennies in front of your toes, and push them away from you so that you’re articulating your toes like fingers.”
Patricia Delgado, a principal dancer with Miami City Ballet, has always struggled with her less-than-ideal feet. She noticed a vast improvement in her line when she started wearing pointe shoes at the barre. “You can use the floor as resistance during tendu and dégagé,” she says, “and because a pointe shoe is much harder than a flat shoe, it strengthens the muscles in your foot and ankle.”
Thera-Band exercises also help. Sitting on the ground with your legs straight out in front of you, loop the band under your forefoot and pull on the ends to create resistance. Casati recommends practicing pointing, flexing, winging and sickling your foot (10 to 20 repetitions per direction) to build strength in your ankles and feet.
Building flexibility takes time. “Don’t force your body to do things it can’t do—you’ll be more susceptible to injury,” Casati says. “You have to make peace with your anatomy.”
Form vs. Function
If you’re blessed with flexible ankles, be aware that winging has a definite time and place. “Wing your foot when it’s in front of you or behind you, whether it’s touching the ground in tendu or up in the air,” Hyltin says. “But not in à la seconde—then it looks like you’re not pointing.”
“A lot of times students misinterpret winging and contort their foot until it’s actually flexed,” Taylor says. “It’s important to understand that the line should be pleasing on a 360-degree plane. If you’re doing a promenade, the audience will see your foot from all angles. You always want the foot to appear fully pointed.”
Sometimes dancers push over towards their big toe on demi- and full-pointe to create a winged look, but this can create problems like tendinitis and heel stiffness. “Ideally you want a nice, neutral foot in relevé, with your weight between your first two toes,” Casati says. “When you’re always grinding one side of the ankle, you create a lot of wear and tear, which can lead to arthritic issues down the road.”
Delgado is sometimes asked to dance over her big toe to create a better line. “But I know that functionally it’s more important to be over my second toe and rotated from the hip down through the knee,” she says. “Function first, then create the line.”
Everyone is built differently, so it’s important to understand your foot—and its limitations—to create the most flattering line. “It’s about figuring out when to wing,” Delgado says. “Spend time examining your foot in the mirror to determine what’s best for your own line.”
Every ballet dancer has a pointe shoe prep process that's akin to a sacred ritual. And while some modifications are meant to make feet look prettier, the most critical tricks help those precious shoes last as long as possible—because at $60 to $100 a pop, they have to. We rounded up some of the best hacks to get your shoes through the intensity of Nutcracker season.
Sore muscles and stiff joints are par for the course when you're a dancer. But sometimes persistent (and painful) pinches appear—and stick around. Never pain is a common occurrence, but it requires more work than a quick rollout and dose of over-the-counter pain reliever. We broke down a few of the most prevalent types and their causes, as well as the most effective forms of treatment.
Pain… In your feet
According to Dr. Alireza Khosroabadi, DPM, "one of the more common dance injuries is Interdigital neuroma." These nerves run under your ligaments in the forefoot, and if they're squeezed too tightly (think pointe shoes), extra tissue builds up, resulting in nerve inflammation and swelling around your toes and the ball of your foot.
How to treat it: Wear flat shoes, stretch and roll out your feet, and, if you can, put them in a whirlpool (the perfect excuse for a pedicure!).
Pain… In your shoulder blades
If your arms have been getting a workout lately, either at the gym or rehearsing choreo with lots of upper-body movement, your shoulder blades absorb the brunt of the impact—shoulder nerves can become compressed due to overuse, resulting in a sharp pinch.
How to treat it: Alternate between ice packs and heating pads every 15 minutes to help reduce the inflammation. And, if possible, lessen your range of motion. Instead of performing crazy arm choreo full-out, try marking it for a few days until the pain begins to dull.
It's Unlikely, But…
If your pain isn't isolated, but rather running from your lower back and down your leg, there's a chance your sciatic nerve is the culprit. It's the largest single nerve in the body and, when pinched, can cause burning and tingling sensations everywhere from right under your bottom down to your ankles, usually only on one side of your body. Though sciatica doesn't often affect people under the age of 20, it's best to ask your doctor or physical therapist if you feel a similar pain.
Podiatrist Thomas Novella remembers one of his first interactions with dancer feet. Fresh out of podiatry school, he saw a patient from The Joffrey Ballet and assumed he knew the clear way to help her out. “I thought I was doing her a favor by trimming her calluses off, just like I'd been trained to do," Novella says. “She called me every day for the next two weeks screaming at me until the calluses started to come back. I immediately learned my lesson!" Now more than 30 years into his career, Novella works with dancers from New York City Ballet, American Ballet Theatre and other dance companies at his practice in NYC, so he's not only learned the importance of calluses to protect delicate skin, but also things like the risks of an ill-fitted shoe, and the toll that Nutcracker season can put on a body. But not every dancer is lucky enough to have a doctor who knows the ins and outs of the dance world. Dance Spirit asked the experts to break down four common scenarios in which your doctor will be better able to help you if you can give a dance-specific description of your needs.