Dancer and choreographer Jerome Robbins was undeniably one of the most important figures in American dance—and he would have been 100 years old this year. In honor of Robbins' centenary, here are a few things you should know about the legend.
Dancer and choreographer Jerome Robbins was undeniably one of the most important figures in American dance. He gifted the dance world with iconic ballets, including Dances at a Gathering, The Cage, The Gershwin Concerto, and New York Export: Opus Jazz, while simultaneously directing and choreographing some of Broadway's biggest hits, including On the Town, The King and I, West Side Story, Gypsy, and Fiddler on the Roof. October 11, 2018, marks what would have been Robbins' 100th birthday, and ballet companies are pulling out all the stops to celebrate throughout the year.
Jerome Robbins—the legendary choreographer who changed the way the world thought about both Broadway and ballet—would have been 100 years old next year. That's the kind of anniversary that calls for a great party. And New York City Ballet, one of Robbins' homes, definitely knows how to throw great parties.
NYCB will actually be honoring Robbins for three whole weeks during its 2018 spring season, dancing 19 different Robbins ballets. But the centerpiece of the celebration, the company just announced, will be a new work staged by Tony Award winner/all-around Broadway rockstar Warren Carlyle, who'll assemble extracts from eight (!) of Robbins' most famous musicals.
It's important to know about the artists who paved the way for us—especially in the musical theater world, which has been driven from the beginning by charismatic dancers and choreographers whose work continues to inspire Broadway babies. If you're a Great White Way fan, you should get to know these legendary artists, some of whom are still making moves.
We all have dance crushes. But I'm a bit of a weirdo: The majority of my dance crushes are, uh, historical. Maybe I was born in the wrong era, because it's the artists of the '40s, '50s and '60s who really speak to me.
At the top of my crush list is Tanaquil Le Clercq, one of George Balanchine's first American muses (and his fourth wife). Why do I love her? Because she was effortlessly glamorous...
LeClercq in costume for La Valse, 1951 (photo Gjon Mili/Life magazine)
...but also totally down for photos like this:
LeClercq in costume for Bourée Fantasque, 1951 (photo Gjon Mili/Life magazine)
Le Clercq—friends called her Tanny—was one of the first dancers trained from the beginning in Balanchine technique, and her long, leggy body became the prototype for the Balanchine ballerina. She was also an incredible chameleon. Onstage, she could transition easily from coolly mysterious to deliciously witty. Balanchine made many ballets for her, and so did Jerome Robbins, one of her closest friends.
Le Clercq's career was cut short by tragedy. In 1956, when she was just 27 years old, she contracted polio, and became paralyzed from the waist down. Though she never danced again, she remained active in the ballet world. Later on, she coached the members of Dance Theatre of Harlem.
Why am I telling you all this right now? Well, there's a new documentary about Le Clercq's remarkable life—and it's coming to a television near you in just a couple of weeks. Tanaquil Le Clercq: Afternoon of a Faun will air on PBS on Friday, June 20 (check local listings for times). The film includes all kinds of fantastic old footage, early performances of ballets that have since become classics.
PBS has put out a couple of teasers, which feature clips of Le Clercq in Robbins' Afternoon of a Faun (alongside fellow legend Jacques d'Amboise) and Balanchine's Concerto Barocco and Western Symphony. Take a look—then set your DVRs for the 20th. (Totally in love with Tanny? The film will also be available on DVD starting June 24.)
New York City Ballet's Janie Taylor and Craig Hall in Robbins' Afternoon of a Faun (photo by Paul Kolnik)
I’ve just made my entrance in Jerome Robbins’ Afternoon of a Faun, stepping onstage into a set designed to look like a ballet studio—with the audience where the mirror would be. I don’t acknowledge my hundreds of viewers. Instead, my partner and I gaze into the darkness and pretend we’re studying our own reflections. In true Robbins fashion, we dance as if no one’s watching.
Performing Robbins’ ballets can be tricky, especially if you’re used to engaging actively with an audience. They aren’t about how big you can grin—or how high you can get your leg, for that matter. To stay true to his style, you need an honest, thoughtful approach. “If what you’re doing doesn’t feel like a genuine human reaction,” says Pacific Northwest Ballet artistic director and former New York City Ballet principal Peter Boal, “it’s wrong.” Humor, emotion and atmosphere are already built into the choreography. The challenge for performers is to trust the steps to speak for themselves.
The Man Behind the Moves
Robbins created more than 60 ballets, mostly for NYCB and Ballets USA (his own company, formed in 1958 but disbanded a few years later). He also directed and choreographed for theater, music and television, earning six Tony Awards for Jerome Robbins’ Broadway and two Academy Awards for West Side Story. “West Side was one of the first things I saw that made me want to dance,” says Georgina Pazcoguin, a NYCB soloist known for her interpretation of Anita in Robbins’ West Side Story Suite (a shortened concert version of the dances from West Side Story). “I watched the film when I was in eighth grade and was stuck to the screen.”
Pacific Northwest Ballet in Robbins' Dances at a Gathering (photo by Angela Sterling)
Throughout his career, Robbins surrounded himself with inspiring artists. He collaborated with famed composer Leonard Bernstein (Fancy Free, West Side Story), and worked side by side with George Balanchine, first as associate artistic director of NYCB and then as ballet master (a title he and Balanchine shared). But Robbins didn’t only rub elbows with the elite. He found inspiration in young students at the School of American Ballet (2 & 3 Part Inventions) and was known to pluck dancers from the corps and put them in starring roles. Robbins was most interested in individuality and talent, regardless of age or prestige.
From Broadway to ballet, Robbins’ style is diverse—and timeless. “There’s something about it that seems of its time, current and ahead of its time all at once,” says Damian Smith, principal at San Francisco Ballet. The content of his work often reflects real life. In the Night and Dances at a Gathering are about regular people’s relationships and interactions; Fancy Free and The Concert have a mix of everyday and eccentric characters. His dancers relate to each other onstage in unmannered, natural ways.
Robbins was very particular and notoriously tough to work for. (He expected his dancers to remember many versions of the same phrase, and to be able to repeat, reverse or rearrange them whenever he asked.) “He pushed us to our maximum and made us better than we thought we were,” Boal says. “It wasn’t so much about pointing your foot or turning out, but about the character you were playing.”
(L to R) PNB's Carrie Imler and Jonathan Porretta in Robbins' The Concert (photo by Angela Sterling)
How to Do It
Robbins’ ballets don’t need a hard sell. He wanted his dancers to be people onstage, not performers playing for laughs or sighs. “It’s as if the people watching are looking through a window at what’s going on,” says Christine Redpath, a Robbins repetiteur and ballet master at NYCB. “He’d always scream, ‘Easy baby!’ It’s not about playing to the public.”
To get the right feel, Pazcoguin has to rein herself in. “I tend to be 125 percent onstage,” she says. “Robbins’ work is extremely athletic, but you’re not supposed to make that apparent to the audience. It’s about finding the subtleties.” Every time she revisits a role like Anita, she likes to bring something different to it. The choreography, though specific in terms of counts, steps and spacing, allows for that kind of individuality.
When Redpath stages Robbins’ ballets, she finds that most dancers worry too much about technique and being in a perfect fifth position. They don’t relax and move without inhibition. “When you’re a kid, and you hear music that brings a smile to your face, you dance and you’re not aware of what other people think,” Redpath explains. “I encourage people to take that approach within the framework of the choreography.”
It seems like ballet companies are all about breaking that fourth wall these days!
If you had fun browsing through Henry Leutwyler's behind-the-scenes photos of New York City Ballet, you'll be happy to hear that The Royal Ballet recently allowed a photographer—from London paper "The Guardian"—backstage, too, to document its latest triple-bill performance. There are shots of everything from Firebird Mara Galeazzi's elaborate makeup and glamorous headpiece to sweaty, intimate rehearsal moments with superstars (and real-life super-couple) Alina Cojocaru and Johan Kobborg.
Take a look—it's the perfect way to while away a lazy Sunday morning.
(All photos by Tristram Kenton)
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